Шаблоны LeoTheme для Joomla.
GavickPro Joomla шаблоны

COMMUNITYBANNER

Research Article

Community-Based Participatory Research Studies on HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2005- 2014

Steven S Coughlin*1,2

1Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN
2Current affiliation: Department of Community Health and Sustainability, Division of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA

*Corresponding author: Dr. Steven Coughlin, One University Avenue, Kitson Hall 313A, Lowell, MA,01854.
Tel: (404) 983-2524; Email steven_coughlin@uml.edu

Submitted: 11-07-2015 Accepted: 12-22-2015 Published: 01-06-2016

Download PDF

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Article

 
Abstract

The recent literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing HIV infection in diverse communities was systematically reviewed as part of the planning process for a new study.

Published HIV prevention studies that employed CBPR methods were identified for the period January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 using PubMed databases and MeSH term and keyword searches.

A total of 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention were identified, of which 3 focused on adolescents, 33 on adults, and
8 on both adolescents and adults. A variety of at-risk populations were the focus of the studies including men who have sex with men, African American or Hispanic men, and African American or Hispanic women. Few studies focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian populations in the U.S. Six studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church settings. Many of the studies were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, in-depth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design, quasi-experimental, or randomized design.

Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigorous study designs to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate screening in diverse communities to address health disparities.

Keywords: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; African Americans; American Indians; Asians and Pacific Islanders; Hispanics; Community-Based Participatory Research; HIV
 
Introduction

Over the past decade, a rich literature has developed on community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to preventing morbidity and mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in diverse communities [1-65]. Studies to date have involved African American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and white persons in the U.S., gay and bisexual men, intravenous drug users, sex workers, migrant workers, urban and rural residents, at-risk youth, and people from several countries around the globe. An increasing number of CBPR studies on HIV/AIDS prevention have used faith-based intervention approaches involving people identified through church congregations [4, 5, 9, 12, 18, 22, 23, 57, 62, 63].

Community-based participatory research methods are particularly useful for studying ways to prevent morbidity and premature mortality in population subgroups that are marginalized, stigmatized, or discriminated against in society, or who are otherwise unempowered. For example, CBPR approaches have been employed for health promotion research conducted in African American and Hispanic communities that face barriers to stopping the spread of HIV related to socioeconomic issues (for example, poverty and limited access to quality health care and education), distrust of the health care system, language barriers, and cultural differences from other groups that are targeted by service providers [65].

As part of the planning process for a CPBR study on HIV prevention among at-risk persons in the United States, a review was conducted of the published literature on this topic over the past decade. The goal of this literature review was not to determine whether CBPR is an effective approach for health promotion and addressing health disparities (which is already widely accepted) but rather to identify recent trends and developments in conducting CBPR research on the prevention of HIV in diverse populations including refinements and innovations in qualitative and quantitative research methods, frameworks, and educational interventions. The current article extends beyond previous reviews by including recently published studies and by including both qualitative and quantitative research.

Methods

Published studies that employed CBPR methods were identified using PubMed databases through MeSH term and keyword searches. Search terms included “community-based participatory research” and “HIV” or “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”. Inclusion criteria consisted of English-language articles published from January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2014 that described community-based participatory research to address HIV prevention or screening. Both formative research on HIV involving focus groups or in-depth interviews and intervention studies that had a pre-/post-test, quasi-experimental, or randomized design were of interest. Pilot studies were included. Although a majority of the studies were conducted in the United States, CBPR studies on HIV prevention conducted outside the United States were also included. Studies that dealt with
dental or oral health, treatment, hospice, or the evaluation of health services were not included. Studies conducted in a community setting that did not employ participatory research methods or community partnerships were also not included. For each article, authors, journals, year of publication, study population, geographic locality, methods, results, and limitations were identified.

Results

A total of 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. The 53 papers described 44 studies on CBPR and HIV or AIDS prevention. Of the 44 studies, 3 focused just on adolescents and the remainder focused on just adults (n = 33) or both adolescents and adults (n = 8) (Table 1). A wide variety of at-risk populations were the focus of published studies including African American men who have sex with men (n = 1), Hispanic men who have sex with men (n = 2), Hispanic families (n = 2), heterosexual African  American adults (n = 2), African American families (n = 5), and members of racially and ethnically diverse communities (n = 1). Only a handful of studies (n = 2) focused on Asian/Pacific Islander or American Indian (n = 1) populations in the United States. A total of 6 studies employed CBPR methods to address HIV prevention in church congregations or other faith communities. Two of the published studies involved educational interventions in chat room settings. Many of the studies (n = 31) were limited to formative research (ethnographic research, indepth interviews of key informants, or focus groups). Other studies had a pre-/post-test design (n = 7), quasi-experimental (n = 2), or randomized design (n = 4). As summarized in Table 1, many published CBPR studies are limited by small sample sizes, uncontrolled confounding, or the lack of a comparison group. Relatively few employed a rigorous study design such as a quasi-experimental study or a randomized trial. Although most of the studies were conducted in the United States, studies on CBPR and HIV prevention were also conducted in Yemen, Kenya, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, China, and the Philippines.

Discussion

The articles on CBPR and HIV prevention highlighted in this review document the important information obtained through participatory research methods in diverse populations. Some studies have employed a rigorous study design such as a quasi- experimental study or a randomized trial. However, many published CBPR studies are limited by small sample sizes, uncontrolled confounding, or the lack of a comparison group. The generalizability of study findings is often unclear. Nevertheless, in the more than 30 years since HIV was first recognized as a pressing public health concern, CBPR approaches have proved to be an effective and flexible approach for addressing HIV prevention in diverse population subgroups. Although CBPR studies were initially conducted mostly among men who have sex with men in large metropolitan areas such as New York and Los Angeles[43], the studies summarized in this review follow more recent trends in the epidemic such as increasing HIV infection rates among African Americans who
 
Table 1. Community-based participatory research studies on HIV/AIDS prevention, 2005-2014.
 
Community Med table 19.1
 
 
Community Med table 19.2
Community Med table 19.3
Community Med table 19.4
Community Med table 19.5
Community Med table 19.6
Community Med table 19.7
Community Med table 19.8
Community Med table 19.9
Community Med table 19.10
Community Med table 19.11
Community Med table 19.12
Community Med table 19.13
Community Med table 19.14
Community Med table 19.15
Community Med table 19.16
Community Med table 19.17
Community Med table 19.18
live in rural areas of the southern United States, increasing rates among African Americans and Hispanics in different urban and rural areas of the United States, increasing disparities among young adults who are African American (particularly men who have sex with men), and increasing rates among women.

As a collaborative approach to research, CBPR equitably involves all partners in the research process [5]. The CBPR approach often involves partnerships between academic and community organizations with the goal of increasing the value of the research product for all partners [10]. In the past, social scientists and researchers who focused on disease prevention tended to approach studies of social phenomena and community problems with an “outsider’s approach” which distanced the research from the participants’ daily lives. The “outsider’s approach” was questioned by Kurt Lewin (1947) and Paulo Freire (1994), who proposed more participatory and inclusive approaches to research. Current perspectives seek to address the complexity of the human experience and the differential power that sometimes exists between academic researchers and research participants [10]. CBPR is linked to other social justice-informed approaches to research that attempt to empower communities to address the root causes of inequality and identify their own problems and appropriate solutions [13]. The CBPR approach strives to acknowledge and implement the participants’ needs, behaviors, and beliefs concerning their well-being [5,10]. CBPR takes into account the strengths and insights that community and academic partners bring to framing health problems and developing solutions. As noted by Corbie-Smith, et al. [10], minority communities should not be viewed as deficient as all communities have unique strengths and resources that should be supported and built upon in order to increase community capacity and design sustainable health interventions.

Several studies identified in this review show that evidence- based HIV prevention interventions can be successfully adapted for new cultural groups without compromising fidelity to the core intervention components [50]. For example, the Familias: Preparando a la Nueva Generacion parent curriculum developed by Parasi et al. (2011) draws upon to efficacious programs for addressing drug use and risky sexual behaviors among youth while also incorporating perspectives of the local community. Many of the studies identified in this review illustrate how community members are often quite interested in playing a role in CBPR and helping to ensure that the educational interventions that are developed are tailored to the needs of their community. For example, Sanchez et al. [50] noted that the “Latino migrant workers wanted to participate in the cultural adaptation that would result in an intervention that was culturally relevant, respectful, response to their life experiences, and aligned with their needs.”

Information about the transmission of HIV and how HIV/AIDS can be prevented is available from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [66]. HIV is transmitted via certain body fluids—blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person who has HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to occur. In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by having anal or vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV (CDC) [66]. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. Vaginal sex is the second- highest-risk sexual behavior. Sharing needles or syringes, rinse water, or other equipment (works) used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV. HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors. HIV may be spread room mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Recommendations to test all pregnant women for HIV and start HIV treatment immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV (CDC) [66].

HIV-related stigma impedes efforts to develop, implement and disseminate HIV education. In addition, HIV stigma contributes to reduced rates of HIV testing and engagement in treatment by African Americans [4]. An increasing number of programs have shown that religiously tailored HIV education can effectively address HIV and HIV-related stigma in diverse communities. Examples include The Balm of Gilead’s National Black Church Week of Prayer for the Healing of AIDS, Broward County’s Churches United to Stop HIV, the Black Faith-Based Health Initiative, 2009, the Metropolitan Community AIDS Network, and Churches United to Stop AIDS [4]. Two of the faith-based studies successfully addressed HIV stigma as part of the intervention activities. The results of these studies indicates that CBPR activities conducted in church settings can successfully mobilize faith communities to positively influence their members to extend compassion and support for people at-risk of HIV and those living with HIV and assist in advocacy  efforts to eliminate injustices and discrimination against peopleliving with HIV [4].

The contributions made by faith organizations are critical to addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in diverse communities in the United States and in other countries. The AIDS National Interfaith Network, The Balm in Gilead, Inc., and the National Coalition of Pastors’ Spouses provide HIV/AIDS training and resources to African American faith communities[18]. Numerous other faith organizations and institutions are addressing HIV prevention, access to screening and treatment, and otherwise providing assistance to people living with HIV at the local level. The black church in the United States has long played an important role in addressing social and economic injustices. Poverty, discrimination, and other injustices are part of the contextual factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in the  African American community [10]. As noted by Derose et al.[12]”congregations are often the last to leave distressed neighborhoods, thereby shouldering much of the burden of meeting community needs, and they can raise awareness about community problems and resources.” The collective efforts of faith organizations at the local, regional, and national level are helping to address pronounced health disparities such as the relatively high HIV rates among African Americans.

Several of the studies identified in this review employed CBPR approaches to prevent HIV among sexual minorities such as gay men, bisexuals, transgendered people, and African American men who have sex with both women and women but who do not identify around their same sex behavior. Although gay communities in the United States and other countries made major reductions in high-risk sexual behaviors in the 1980s and early 1990s, rates of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases have increased in the United States since the mid-1990s [36]. Epidemiologic studies showed that, by 2006, many new HIV infections were occurring among young men who have sex with men, particularly among those who are African American or Hispanic. Results from recent epidemiologic studies underscore the severity of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men [36]. Several of the studies included in this review used CBPR approaches to prevent HIV among men who have sex with men. Some of the studies developed and examined the effectiveness of educational interventions conducted in chat room settings [19,41]. CBPR approaches for preventing HIV and encouraging HIV testing are evolving as new technologies such as the Internet and the rise of social media are changing ways in which people identify sex partners or seek information about how they can reduce their risk of sexually transmitted infections.

Only a handful of the studies identified in this review used CPBR approaches to develop and implement HIV prevention interventions tailored for American Indians, Asians or Pacific Islanders in the United States [13,20,64]. The number of Asian and Pacific Islanders in the United States is rapidly growing. Asian and Pacific Islanders are more likely than all other racial/ ethnic groups in the United States to be diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis [64], underscoring the need for more CBPR studies on HIV prevention among Asian and Pacific Islander subpopulations.

Four of the studies included in this review used CBPR methods to successfully develop and implement interventions to protect  sex workers and their clients from HIV infection [27,29,51,58]. Sex workers are an extremely vulnerable population who are at-risk for HIV, substance abuse, violence, and other health disparities. The low socioeconomic status of women in many societies increases the vulnerability of women to HIV and places them at risk for health disparities [27].

In summary, CBPR studies have been conducted in the past decade to address the increasing HIV infection rates among African Americans who live in rural areas of the southern United States, increasing rates among African Americans and Hispanics in different urban and rural areas of the United States, increasing disparities among young adults who are African American (particularly men who have sex with men), and increasing rates among women. World-wide, women account for over half of new HIV cases. Additional CBPR studies and faith-based interventions are needed with adequate sample sizes and rigor study designs to empower communities to address lack of knowledge of HIV and inadequate HIV screening in diverse communities in the United States and other countries that suffer from health disparities and preventable morbidity and mortality.

References

References

  1. Akintobi TH, Trotter JC, Evans D, Johnson T, Laster N et al. Applications in bridging the gap: a community-campus partnership to address sexual health disparities among African-American youth in the south. J Community Health. 2011, 36(3): 486-494.
  2. Al-Iryani B, Al-Sakkaf K, Basaleem H, Kok G, van den Borne B. Process evaluation of a three-year community-based peer education intervention for HIV prevention among Yemeni young people. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2010, 31(2): 133-154.
  3. Baptiste DR, Bhana EA, Petersen I, McKay M, Voisin D et al. Community collaborative youth-focused HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa and Trinidad: preliminary findings. J Pediatric Psychol. 2006, 31(9): 905-916.
  4. Berkley-Patton J, Bowe-Thompson C, Bradley-Ewing A, Hawes S, Moore E et al. Taking it to the Pews: a CBPR-guided HIV awareness and screening project with black churches. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(3): 218-237.
  5. Berkley-Patton JY, Moore E, Berman M, Simon SD, Thompson CB et al. Assessment of HIV-related stigma in a US faith-based HIV education and testing intervention. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013, 16(Suppl 2): 18644.
  6. Bermudez Parsai M, Castro FG, Marsiglia FF, Harthun ML, Valdez H et al. Using community based participatory research to create a culturally grounded intervention for parents and youth to prevent risky behaviors. Prev Sci. 2011, 12(1): 34-47.
  7. Cashman R, Eng E, Siman F, Rhodes SD. Exploring the sexual health priorities and needs of immigrant Latinas in the southeastern United States: a community-based participatory research approach. AIDS Educ Prev. 2011, 23(3): 236-248.
  8. Coker-Appiah DS, Akers AY, Banks B, Albritton T, Leniek K et al. In their own voices: rural African American youth speak out about community-based HIV prevention interventions. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2009, 3(4): 275-276.
  9. Coleman JD, Lindley LL, Annang L, Saunders RP, Gaddist B et al. Development of a framework for HIV/AIDS prevention programs in African American churches. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012, 26(2): 116-124.
  10. Corbie-Smith G, Adimora AA, Youmans S, Muhammad M, Blumenthal C et al. Project GRACE: a staged approach to development of a community-academic partnership to address HIV in rural African American communities. Health Promot Pract. 2011, 12(2): 293-302.
  11. Corbie-Smith G, Akers A, Blumenthal C, Council B, Wynn M et al. Intervention mapping as a participatory approach to developing an HIV prevention intervention in rural African American communities. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(3): 184-202.
  12. Derose KP, Mendel PJ, Kanouse DE, Bluthenthal RN, Castaneda LW et al. Learning about urban congregations and HIV/AIDS: community-based foundations for developing congregational health interventions. J Urban Health. 2010, 87(4): 617-630.
  13. DiStefano AS, Hui B, Barrera-NG A, Quitugua LF, Peters R et al. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California. Social Science and Medicine. 2012, 75(4): 699-708.
  14. DiStefano A, Peters R, Tanjasiri SP, Quitugua L, Dimaculangan J et al. A community-based participatory research study of HIV and HPV vulnerabilities and prevention in two Pacific Islander communities: ethical challenges and solutions. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2013, 8(1): 68-78.
  15. Ferre CD, Jones L, Norris KC, Rowley DL. The Healthy African American Families (HAAR) project: from community-based participatory research to community-partnered participatory research. Ethn Dis. 2010, 20(1 Suppl 2): S2-1-8.
  16. Fortune T, Wright E, Juzang I, Bull S. Recruitment, enrollment and retention of young black men for HIV prevention research: experiences from the 411 for Safe Text Project. Contemp Clin Trials. 2010, 31(2): 151-156.
  17. Gao MY, Wang S. Participatory communication and HIV/AIDS prevention in a Chinese marginalized (MSM) population. AIDS Care. 2007, 19(6): 799-810.
  18. Griffith DM, Pichon LC, Campbell B, Allen JO. YOUR Blessed Health: a faith-based CBPR approach to addressing HIV/AIDS among African Americans. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(3): 203-217.
  19. Hallett J, Brown G, Maycock B, Langdon P. Challenging communities, changing spaces: the challenges of health promotion in cyberspace. Promot Educ. 2007, 14(3): 150-154.
  20. Johnson JL, Gryczynski J, Wiechelt SA. HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and hepatitis prevention needs of Native Americans living in Baltimore: in their own words. AIDS Educ Prev. 2007, 19(6): 531-544.
  21. Liao S, Weeks MR, Wang Y, Li F, Jiang J et al. Female condom use in the rural sex industry in China: analysis of users and non-users at post-intervention surveys. AIDS Care. 2011, 23(Suppl 1): 66-74.
  22. Lightfoot AF, Woods BA, Jackson M, Riggins L, Krieger K et al. "In my house": laying the foundation for youth HIV prevention in the black church. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2012, 6(4): 451-456.
  23. Lightfoot AF, Taggart T, Woods-Jaeger BA, Riggins L, Jackson MR et al. Where is the faith? Using a CBPR approach to propose adaptations to an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for adolescents in African American faith settings. J Relig Health. 2014, 53(4): 1223-1235.
  24. Lloyd SW, Ferguson YO, Corbie-Smith G, Ellison A, Blumenthal C et al. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural South. AIDS Educ Prev. 2012, 24(1): 41-53.
  25. Martinez O, Dodge B, Reece M, Schnarrs PW, Rhodes SD et al. Sexual health and life experiences: voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA. Cult Health Sex. 2011, 13(9): 1073-1089.
  26. Morisky DE, Chiao C, Ksobiech K, Malow RM. Reducing alcohol use, sex risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among Filipina female bar workers: effects of an ecological intervention. J Prev Interv Community. 2010, 38(2): 104-117.
  27. Morisky DE, Malow RM, Tiglao TV, Lyu SY, Vissman AT et al. Reducing sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers: effects of a CBPR-developed structural and network intervention. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(4): 371-385.
  28. Morisky DE, Tiglao TV. Educational and structural interventions and their impact on condom use and STI/HIV prevention for Filipina women and male customers. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2010, 22(3 Suppl): 151S-158S.
  29. Nie L, Liao S, Weeks MR, Wang Y, Jiang J et al. Promoting female condoms in the sex industry in four towns of Southern China: context matters. Sex Transm Dis. 2013, 40(3): 264-270.
  30. Nyamathi AM, Sinha S, Ganguly KK, William RR, Heravian A et al. Challenges experienced by rural women in India living with AIDS and implications for the delivery of HIV/AIDS care. Health Care Women Int. 2011, 32(4): 300-313.
  31. Operario D, Smith CD, Arnold E, Kegeles S. The Bruthas Project: evaluation of a community-based HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men and women. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(1): 37-48.
  32. Othieno CJ, Obondo A, Mathai M. Improving adherence to anti-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action. BMC Public Health. 2012, 12: 677.
  33. Puffer ES, Pian J, Sikkema KJ, Ogwang-Odhiambo RA, Broverman SA et al. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2013, 8(2): 119-128.
  34. Remple VP, Johnston C, Patrick DM, Tyndall MW, Jolly AM. Conducting HIV/AIDS research with indoor commercial sex workers: reaching a hidden population. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2007, 1(2): 161-168.
  35. Rhodes SD, Yee LJ, Hergenrather KC. A community-based rapid assessment of HIV behavioural risk disparities within a large sample of gay men in southeastern USA: a comparison of African American, Latino and white men. AIDS Care. 2006, 18(8): 1018-1024.
  36. Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Yee LJ, Wilkin AM, Clarke TL et al. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2007, 21(11): 861-870.
  37. Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Bloom FR, Leichliter JS, Montaño J et al. Outcomes from a community-based, participatory lay health advisor HIV/STD prevention intervention for recently arrived immigrant Latino men in rural North Carolina. AIDS Educ Prev. 2009, 21(5 Suppl): 103-108.
  38. Rhodes SD, Daniel J, Alonzo J, Duck S, García M et al. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men. Health Promot Pract. 2013, 14(4): 607-616.
  39. Rhodes SD, Duck S, Alonzo J, Ulloa JD, Aronson RE et al. Using community-based participatory research to prevent HIV disparities: assumptions and opportunities identified by the Latino partnership. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013, 63 (Suppl 1): S32-5.
  40. Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Aronson RE, Bloom FR, Felizzola J et al. Latino men who have sex with men and HIV in the rural south-eastern USA: findings from ethnographic in-depth interviews. Cult Health Sex. 2010, 12(7): 797-812.
  41. Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Vissman AT, Stowers J, Davis AB et al. Boys must be men, and men must have sex with women: a qualitative CBPR study to explore sexual risk among African American, Latino, and white gay men and MSM. Am J Mens Health. 2011, 5(2): 140-151.
  42. Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Duncan J, Vissman AT, Miller C et al. A pilot intervention utilizing Internet chat rooms to prevent HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men. Public Health Rep. 2010, 125(Suppl 1): 29-37.
  43. Rhodes SD, Kelley C, Siman F, Cashman R, Alonzo J et al. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop a community-level HIV prevention intervention for Latinas: a local response to a global challenge. Womens Health Issues. 2012, 22(3): e293-301.
  44. Rhodes SD, Malow RM, Jolly C. Community-based participatory research (CBPR): a new and not-so-new approach to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(3): 173-183.
  45. Rhodes SD, McCoy TP, Vissman AT, DiClemente RJ, Duck S et al. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. AIDS Behav. 2011, 15(8): 1764-1775.
  46. Rhodes SD, Tanner A, Duck S, Aronson RE, Alonzo J et al. Female sex work within the rural immigrant Latino community in the southeast United States: an exploratory qualitative community-based participatory research study. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2012, 6(4): 417-427.
  47. Rhodes SD, Vissman AT, Stowers J, Miller C, McCoy TP et al. A CBPR partnership increases HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): outcome findings from a pilot test of the CyBER/testing Internet intervention. Health Educ Behav. 2011, 38(3): 311-320.
  48. Rios-Ellis B, Espinoza L, Bird M, Garcia M, D'Anna LH et al. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010, 21(3 Suppl): 148-168.
  49. Sadler KE, McGarrigle CA, Elam G, Ssanyu-Sseruma W, Othieno G et al. Mayisha II: pilot of a community-based survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles and anonymous HIV testing within African communities in London. AIDS Care. 2006, 18(4): 398-403.
  50. Sanchez J, Serna CA, de La Rosa M. Project Salud: Using community-based participatory research to culturally adapt and HIV prevention intervention in the Latino migrant worker community. Int Public Health J. 2012, 4(3): 301-308.
  51. Shannon K, Bright V, Allinott S, Alexson D, Gibson K et al. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership. Harm Reduction Journal. 2007, 4: 20.
  52. Shannon K, Kerr T, Allinott S, Chettiar J, Shoveller J et al. Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work. Soc Sci Med. 2008, 66(4): 911-921.
  53. Shambley-Ebron DZ. My sister, myself: a culture- and gender-based approach to HIV/AIDS prevention. J Transcult Nurs. 2009, 20(1): 28-36.
  54. Teti M, Murray C, Johnson L, Binson D. Photovoice as a community-based participatory research method among women living with HIV/AIDS: ethical opportunities and challenges. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2012, 7(4): 34-43.
  55. Tucker A, de Swardt G, Struthers H, McIntyre J. Understanding the needs of township men who have sex with men (MSM) health outreach workers: exploring the interplay between volunteer training, social capital and critical consciousness. AIDS Behav. 2013, 17(Suppl 1): S33-42.
  56. Vissman AT, Hergenrather KC, Rojas G, Langdon SE, Wilkin AM et al. Applying the theory of planned behavior to explore HAART adherence among HIV-positive immigrant Latinos: elicitation interview results. Patient Educ Couns. 2011, 85(3): 454-60.
  57. Wingood GM, Simpson-Robinson L, Braxton ND, Raiford JL. Design of a faith-based HIV intervention: successful collaboration between a university and a church. Health Promot Pract. 2011,12(6): 823-831.
  58. Weeks MR, Liao S, Li F, Li J, Dunn J et al. Challenges, strategies, and lessons learned from a participatory community intervention study to promote female condoms among rural sex workers in Southern China. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010, 22(3): 252-271.
  59. Weiss JA, Dwonch-Schoen K, Howard-Barr EM, Panella MP. Learning from a community action plan to promote safe sexual practices. Soc Work. 2010, 55(1): 19-26.
  60. Wells KJ, Preuss C, Pathak Y, Kosambiya JK, Kumar A et al. Engaging the community in health research in India. Technol Innov. 2012, 13(4).
  61. Williams CC, Newman PA, Sakamoto I, Massaquoi NA. HIV prevention risks for black women in Canada. Soc Sci Med. 2009, 68(1): 12-20.
  62. Williams TT, Griffith DM, Pichon LC, Campbell B, Allen JO et al. Involving faith-based organizations in adolescent HIV prevention. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2011, 5(4): 425-431.
  63. Wingood GM, Simpson-Robinson L, Braxton ND, Raiford JL et al. Design of a faith-based HIV intervention: successful collaboration between a university and a church. Health Promot Pract. 2011, 12(6): 823-831.
  64. Wong FY, Crisostomo VA, Bao D, Smith BD, Young D et al. Development and implementation of a collaborative multistakeholder research and practice model on HIV prevention targeting Asian/Pacific Islander men in the United States who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 2011, 101(4): 623-631.
  65. Yancey EM, Mayberry R, Armstrong-Mensah E, Collins D, Goodin L et al. The community-based participatory intervention effect of "HIV-RAAP". Am J Health Behav .2012, 36(4): 555-568.
  66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Cite this article: Coughlin S. Community-Based Participatory Research Studies on HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2005-2014. J J Commun Med. 2016, 2(1): 019.

Contact Us:
9600 GREAT HILLS
TRAIL # 150 W
AUSTIN, TEXAS
78759 ( TRAVIS COUNTY)
E-mail : info@jacobspublishers.com
Phone : 512-400-0398